John Adams and the Habsburg Monarchy

John Adams and the Habsburg Monarchy

By Jonathan Singerton

The Habsburg Monarchy had many men who understood the complexity of the early American situation. Foremost among them, Count Karl von Zinzendorf had studied the American colonial economy, had met with Benjamin Franklin in London before the war, and had read the histories of America as well as the revolutionary pamphlets of Thomas Paine and Samuel Adams.

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John Adams and the Habsburg Monarchy2021-12-14T14:44:36+00:00

Zinzendorf and Zinner: Two Unlikely Experts on the American Revolution

Zinzendorf and Zinner: Two Unlikely Experts on the American Revolution

By Jonathan Singerton

Before the American Revolution had even begun, the British ambassador in Vienna disgruntledly commented to his superiors in London, “every idle fellow talks of America.” Yet who really knew what they were talking about, exactly? Who in the Habsburg Monarchy knew the most about the faraway land across the Atlantic Ocean?

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Zinzendorf and Zinner: Two Unlikely Experts on the American Revolution2021-12-14T14:52:37+00:00

American Revolutionary and Revolutionary Emperor: Benjamin Franklin and Joseph II

American Revolutionary and Revolutionary Emperor: Benjamin Franklin and Joseph II

By Jonathan Singerton

Back when the United States of America struggled to become an independent nation, one name stood out for Europeans as the quintessential American: Benjamin Franklin. Before the revolution his name became synonymous with modernity through his prolific writing, scientific endeavours, and his numerous inventions, most famously the lightning rod, the Franklin stove, and the musical glass harmonica. Franklin, a shrewd businessman now statesman, knew his European audiences well and donned his notorious beaver hat and fur-skinned coat for the couriers at Versailles during his mission to Europe as one of the United States’s representatives to France. For people located in the Habsburg Monarchy, far away from the bloody battlefields in North America or the whimsical French court, Franklin also embodied the young republic in a myriad of ways.

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American Revolutionary and Revolutionary Emperor: Benjamin Franklin and Joseph II2021-12-14T14:55:03+00:00
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